אתר היסטורי

We tend to believe that the settling of the Central Arava is relatively new. However  that is not the case. We carried out some research and discovered who and what dominated the region before our arrival……

Here we provide you with detailed information and pictures of some of the historical landmarks found in the Central Arava.

Readers are invited to send additional pictures and info on additional sites, if you know of any. The page will continue to be updated and revised according to materials we receive in the future.

מעלה עקרבים הרומי והמנדטוריפיגוע 1954

Scorpion’s Ascent (Ma’ale Akrabim) – the Roman and the British Mandate Era

This is an impressive road dating from the Roman Era, which once connected the Arava and the Hatzera Mountain Range, continuing towards Mamshit and to Jerusalem. The road ascends to a height of approximately 350 meters, over a distance of 2 kilometers.

In order to deal with the steep incline, the road builders hewed into the natural rock and formed a series of stairways that climb to the mountaintop via a sharp and twisting route (35). A roadway was made in 1927 by paving a route descending from Mamshit to the Arava and Eilat. The winding road is suitable for any type of vehicle, but must be driven with great caution. There are several wider points along route, with observation points over the Zin Riverbed and the Roman Scorpion’s Ascent.

In 1954 there was a murderous attack on an Egged bus returning from festivities celebrating Eilat’s 5 years of independence. Eleven of the passengers were murdered by infiltrators who entered via the Jordanian border.

מעלה עקרבים הרומי והמנדטורי





Remnants of the Mandatory Road through the Arava

Well preserved remnants of the Soling Road can be found along the Arava Road.

Soling Road. This is a method developed by British engineer, Thomas Telford (1757-1834), whose expertise was in planning bridges, channels and roads. He developed a unique method for paving roads in places that were difficult to access – Soling Roads. Soling consisted of large stones embedded along the road’s curb to a depth of 18-45 cm. while the width of the road was filled with gravel and stones and compressed with a heavy roller. Many roads in Israel were paved using this method during the Mandatory period (taken from the 'Motke'' website).

The road has undergone development works in several places along the route which has led to destruction of the original road, section by section. The Soling Road was paved using a road-paving technique that began back in the Roman Era and still existed during the British Mandate period in Israel.

In 1932 it was discovered that during construction of the British police building in 1930 in Ein Husov, the builders destroyed part of an ancient structure, and used the stones from it to build the British Mounted Police structure.

The British construction activity of the Camel Squad includes a well, a base for the pump, a water channel, and a trough for the camels. The police station still exists, in Ir Ovot.

From testimonies of Lechi members all those who were involved in the construction process of paving the road, building the 'dry' support walls at the Scorpion’s Ascent  under the command of officers of the Engineering Corps, Beit Esh and Bauman – there was a well-stocked 'Shekem' kiosk at Ein Husov, supplying all needs.

At Ein Wiba (the spring near the present-day military base) there was also an active British police station and to this day we are still looking for the sign made up of white rocks reading 'PALESTINE POLICE'. The station was abandoned before the British Mandate era, because horses could not survive the harsh lands that damaged their hooves. However the actual reason was due to the presence of malaria.

These facts are according to testimony given by Yaakov Orev who was base at the agricultural lookout point in Ein Yahav in the 1950s.

North of the site one can notice a stack of Victaulic pipes that were brought there in the 1980s. This is the last use of these pipes that helped the Negev bloom, beginning in the 1940s, from Nir Am to the Arava.

The site served as an important station on the way to Eilat in the days of the Mandate for those traveling to the Dead Sea Works and for IDF soldiers in the Lot Campaign and the Uvda Campaign.

הכביש הישן לאילת

כביש הערבה

The Old Road to Eilat

The road was paved following the massacre at Scorpion's Ascent in 1954 and it connected Eilat to the north of the country.

Along the road there were several military checkpoints.

  • Opposite Ein Radian, near the entrance to Roded Farm and near the Menucha intersection.
  • A section of the road leading to Ein Yahav marked with barrels east of the Arava Road opposite the entrance to Nachal Nemia, which was also used as a passage to the south.

עין חצבהעין חצבה


The Biblical Tamar (Tamara) – Ein Hatzeva

Next to Ein Hatzeva is the biblical settlement – The Byzantine Tamar and Tamara.

Here one can find remnants of the city’s square fortress. This is the oldest Jewish settlement from the biblical period found in the region, from the days of King Solomon.

On the site they found an Edomite temple and remains of a Roman bath that were built on a junction to the Red Sea and Scorpion's Ascent. They found vessels of worship, clay bowls, coins and remnants of a Nabatean hostel, located on the road from Petra to Mamshit. There is a reconstruction of the remains of fortresses and structures, similar to the four-roomed house, a typical house from the period of the First Temple and proof of Jewish existence in the Arava region.

The fortress used the water from the nearby Ein Husov spring (Hatzeva), next to which grows the thousand-year-old Ziziphus (Jujube) tree, one of the oldest trees in Israel. Experts referred to its scientific name, Ziziphus Spina-Christi. Most called it 'The Tree', because there was no other like it in the area.

An American University took on the task to research the subject and to reconstruct a similar house on the site that had already been marked out. Many trees have also been planted on the site, courtesy of Keren Kayemet Le’Yisrael (KKL). The site enjoys ongoing maintenance by the "Blossoming Rose" Organization.

גבעת הבריכה של מושב חצבה

גבעת הבריכה של מושב חצבה

The Pool Hill – Moshav Hatzeva

On the hill one can find black slag deposits, proof of a facility for copper production. The source of the copper ore was in Phonun. The process of making copper was done on the hill so they could exploit the  prevailing winds to enhance the strength of the fire.

ציר המעיינות ועין שחק

ציר המעיינות ועין שחק

Springs Route and Ein Shachak

The Springs Route is a dirt path, accessible by 4X4 vehicle, which runs along the edges of the Arava, crossing over small springs along the way and through concentrated areas of plants that benefit from the high ground water. The route crosses places marked on the map as springs, but usually no water is found there. The springs from north to south include - Ein Zach, Ein Tamid, Ein Sack, Ein Shachak, Ein Rachel and Moa.

כפר מהתקופה המוסלמית הקדומה - אתר נחל שחק:

Village from the Early Islamic Period – Nachal Shachak

The Nachal Shachak site is located on the Northern Arava Plain, northwest of the Shizaf Hills and north of the meeting point of Nachal Rachash and Nachal Shachak. This is a hilly area covered in reddish dunes.

The site itself is located in a level area and is part of the Shizaf Reserve. The closest source of water is Ein Hatzeva, about 3 km north of the site. At Nachal Gidron, about 1 km north of the site, there was an additional abundant water source.

On the Nachal Shachak site, the remains of a village from the Omayyad Dynasty and the beginnings of the Abbasid Dynasty, 7th – 9th centuries BC can be observed. The village covered an area of 1.25 acres and includes 10 square structures, built with mud blocks on well-preserved stone bases, and village houses built around a structure that was most likely the heart of the village. The building style and architectural details are evidence of an established architectural tradition and findings discovered in the rubbish piles (clay vessels, glass, cooking utensils, pitchers, coins and candles) are proof of a well-established society. It also appears that the village was abandoned deliberately.

מערכת בארות שרשרת – פוגארות

A Chain System of Wells – Qanat

The Qanat is in fact an underground channel, that has been cleverly excavated. The  tunnel was dug and debris was extracted via shafts, and deposited outside. After the dirt was excavated, the ceiling of the tunnel was lined. The height of the tunnel was less than half a meter tall and, therefore, only very small people were able to carry out this task.

The method of transporting water in Qanats was invented in Persia (in the arid areas). It seems there were short statured families whose profession was installing Qanats and their work was considered and kept as a professional secret.

 This well system is located in the fields of Moshav Ein Yahav. This is a system from the ancient Islamic Period including two shafts (when they were dug they reached 3.60 meters deep) and a horizontal tunnel connecting between them, leading to Ein Marzev. Quite surprisingly, when the shafts were cleaned, water was found in the Qanat. Water that, 1200 years ago, flowed through the Qanat to Ein Marzev and created a small 'green' corner in the middle of the desert, which our children call 'The Jungle'. This 'Jungle' can be found 400 meters west of the khan.

For the most part, the Qanats were dug within the area of a flood plain, from the foot of the mountain toward the areas with the best soil, where plots were cultivated. The  tunnels were dug while maintaining a moderate slope to prevent too much current in the water inside the tunnel. By transporting water underground in arid areas they solved the problem of evaporation and thus enjoyed the most efficient use of water. Another detail related to this engineering feat lies in the fact that the building and installation of Qanats could only be performed by the central governing body, due to the fact that few knew the secret of building them. The fact that we find so many Qanats in the Ein Yahav area indicates that in the early Arab Period (8th century BC, about 1200 years ago) there was serious agricultural development in the area executed by the central governing body, which sat in Jerusalem.

Additional Qanat systems have been discovered in the Jordan Valley and in Ein Evrona, near Eilat.

בית חווה מוסלמי באזור עין-יהב

בית חווה מוסלמי באזור עין-יהב

The Farm House - Located in Ein Yahav’s Shizaf Area

This is a square building (10X15) made up of several rooms, constructed from light sandstone. The walls are covered with inscriptions in Arabic from the early Islamic Period. It is next to a Roman structure. Here they also found clay pots, stone and lead weights and the remnants of a scale.

חאן עין יהב

Khan Ein Yahav

This building is made up of several rooms surrounding a central yard with corner turrets. The primary room is the one which was used for cooking, with an abundance of ashes, remnants of pots and cooking bowls. The khan, ascribed to the early Arab Period, was also used as a hostel for travelers passing through and most likely as an agricultural farm as well, based on the remains of the Qanats nearby. The khan is located in the area which was previously used as Moshav Ein Yahav’s garbage dump.

דרב אל-סולטן

Darb El-Sultan

This is an ancient trail ascending from Ein Yahav in the Arava, to the Northern Negev Highlands.

In the past, this was the main route that connected the Arava to the Southern coastal plain, on the way to Gaza.

Today, the 4x4 route begins near Sde Boker, descends to Nachal Zin, passes by Ein Orchot and ends where Nachal Marzava meets with the Arava Road. Some parts are difficult to traverse (the Tzalmon branch) and require skilled driving in a 4X4 vehicle.

אמת מים במנחת עין יהב

An Aqueduct at the Ein Yahav Site

There is an aqueduct made of field boulders running east-west on the site.

Nearby are additional aqueducts and remnants of an agricultural farm.

עין אל עמר

Ein El Amar

This is a water source, which began as a spring in the Nachal Arava channel, and, over time, became a well.

It is worth noting that in a water-quality test of the springs in the region, performed  in 1936 (according to Breslavi), the sweetest water in the entire region came from Ein El Amar. Later on when drilling began in the 1960s, it became evident that the wells closest to Ein El Amar really did have the sweetest water. The supply was the most abundant in comparison to the rest of the wells in the Arava. It appears, although there is no real proof, that the Incense Trade Route, descending from the Edom Mountains to the Arava plain, passed by this source of sweet water, and from this spot onward, it continued to the Negev Mountain region through Wadi El Amar which was probably named after the spring (today known as Nachal Omer).

This route that ascends from the Arava into the Negev Highlands became known as the “Incense Route”. Whoever wanted to cross the Negev from east to west took advantage of this path, and, by using it, overcame the mountainous topography on the east and central sides of the Negev. This land route ended in Gaza on the Mediterranean coast and it continued, via the sea, ending up in Rome. Very few know the story of an important historical event, that for some reason has been forgotten, which ties Gaza – the Incense Route – and Ein El Amar. This refers to the battle that took place in 634 AD between the Muslim troops from Saudi Arabia (of today) and the Byzantine (Christian) troops, sent to block the way.

This inevitable confrontation took place near Ein El Amar. The Muslim troops came up through the Incense Route, west of Eilat (Aqaba) and from there continued onward along the Arava and set up camp near the vital, abundant, and sweet water source within the Nachal Arava channel (Sharon, pg. 51). Heading the Muslim troops was, most likely, Omer Ibn El Atz and those trying to block the Muslim troops were the army led by the Patriarch of Gaza. The Patriarch was the head of the Christian church in Gaza. His leadership of the Byzantine army shows the importance of the religious leader and the status of Christianity among the urban, Byzantine population in the Land of Israel. In the battle that took place between the invading Muslim troops and the defending Christian force, the Muslims won. The Byzantine (Christian) army was defeated and it appears the Patriarch was killed.

It is possible that the origin of the spring’s name Ein El Amar is related to this event, due to the fact that the Muslim commander’s name was Omri. Another validation of this version is the fact that this is the only spring in the region whose name in Arabic is the name of a person, not like Ein Wiva, Ein Hacholeh, Ein Charuf, Maayan Hakivsa, etc.

The battle at Ein El Amar is one of the first Muslim attempts of invasion, arising from the east into the Land of Israel (Palestina).

Despite their victory, the Muslims did not continue toward Gaza. They were probably afraid of extending the supply lines and first wanted to ensure their security from the east. Gaza was conquered three years later.

With the defeat and settling of Muslims in the Land of Israel (7-8 centuries AD) a small village called El Amar was established. This village was part of an array of Muslim rural settlements spread throughout the Dead Sea rift. In a later period, Ein El Amar continued to exist and was mainly used by Bedouin residing in the region.

With the commencement of the British Mandate, the British tried to win the sympathies of the Bedouin by commandeering the most important water sources in the Negev, including Ein El Amar. They poured concrete around the well openings, thus building drinking troughs for livestock.

Ein El Amar continued to serve as an important source of sweet water. The British built a Police Station in the desert, named El Amar. Beneath the Police building (visible from the Arava Road on the mountain line from the east, south of Moshav Tzofar) the British prepared the area as an airstrip for light planes. The site was  marked by a large stone inscription, made up of stones taken from the slope beneath the police building.

In the War of Independence, in the framework of the 'Uvda Campaign' (March 1949), the Golani Brigade advanced through the Arava. They expected that the Jordanian force holding the El Amar police station would be a problem, however, following a light exchange of gunfire the Jordanian forces retreated and the Golani Brigade  continued south to meet up with the Negev Brigade at Um Rashrash.

With the beginnings of settlement in the Arava (in the 1960s) the vegetable crops in the Ein Yahav Nachal settlement were planted, south of Ein El Amar. In the summer of 1968, terrorists shot two Nachal soldiers working in the field, Tuki Shapira was seriously wounded and taken to Soroka Hospital by Srulik Livnat and a second soldier was killed. In response to this incident the IDF evacuated the area of the Bedouin tribes, east of Ein El Amar.

Following another incident of firing in Ein Yahav, in 1968, the IDF moved east to Nachal Arava and established a military presence, to the east. Over time the farmers from the area started cultivating the fields, east of Nachal Arava, (in Jordanian territory). This continued until the peace treaty with Jordan, which was signed in the Arava, in 1994.

With the erection of a border fence, Ein El Amar passes on its eastern side (on the Jordanian side) therefore, today, it can only be viewed from the security road.

מצד רחל – ליד ספיר

Metzad Rachel – Near Sapir

Here is an ancient Nabatean stronghold built with several rooms and overlooking the nearby Rachel Spring and the southern Arava.

עין רחל

Ein Rachel

In Arabic, Ein Haruf (the spring of the sheep, 'Maayan Hakivsah') is a round well built from brick and a square pool built from hewn stones which was used until the modern era. Spring water was considered to be the best in all the Arava. It appears   this was the first stop on Darb Sultana (an ancient route coming up from Ein Yahav in the Arava to the Northern Negev Mountain and from there to the Negev coastal plain and to Gaza port).

Huge fig trees grew near Ein Rachel and the Breslavian researcher states that cuttings were taken from the ancient fig trees to the experiment station in Ein Husov in the 1950s. Today there is not a trace of these trees.


The Caldera

A caldera is a volcanic structure in which a large round crater is formed, with a radius of over a kilometer, when the peak of the volcano collapses. It derives from the Spanish word cauldron.  

Not far from Ein Rachel, is a geological site that includes a dike and ancient sites at the peak of the range. The stone structures extend tens of meters, indicating an ancient path. The tumuli (burial sites) are built from stone mounds with a tomb in the center.

Tumulus (plural: tumuli) – a circular artificial mound of stones to indicate an ancient burial site. There is a large and interesting site near the Oded wells and similar sites can be found in other places throughout the Negev and in Sinai.

There is a theory claiming that the custom of placing a stone on a grave, at funerals and when visiting the gravesite, today, is based on an ancient custom (forming a mound of stones) which is meant to preserve the burial place of the deceased.

Very strong volcanic activity occurred along the Syrian-African Rift in the geological past. Traces of this activity can be found in the basalt dike that crosses the hills and channels in the area of Nachal Karkeshet, Nachal Ashborn, Nachal Tzvira and Ramot Yahav. The dike appears as a dark stripe, west of Sapir. The site is adjacent to the Israel National Trail.

גבעת נחושת ליד ספיר

The Copper Hill near Sapir

In our immediate region there are several locations that,  in the past, were used to produce copper. The copper mines are located on the Trans-Jordan River in a place called Phonon, approximately 23 kilometers east of Moshav Ein Yahav. These ores were brought from the Arava to our region because here, Acacia trees grew in the dry river beds and were used for firewood in the production process. The production sites were situated on hilltops so the prevailing winds could be utilized to intensify  the burning fires.

The production process was done in a pit over which the ore was melted. The pure copper ran to the bottom of the pit and the slag was removed. The black slag caused the slope of the hill to be stained black. Researchers argue regarding the time period of this copper production. Benno Rothenberg ascribes it to the Byzantine Period.

If you take the road opposite the entrance to Sapir and travel east, beyond the garbage dump and turn right,  you will reach the site.

Important stations along the Incense Route, in the Arava and the Negev include:

החאן במואה


An ancient Nabatean station (khan), in the Arava, where there are remnants of a square fortress and a hostel on the hilltop. There were soldiers on guard who secured the caravans transporting spices and perfume from Yemen to the Gaza Port during the Roman Period. Many clay pots, coins, seeds and buds were found on site and they were well-preserved due to the dry climate. This is the largest and most impressive archaeological site in our area.

Moa’s prominence came from its location on an important route that crossed the Arava and the Negev beyond the eastern Jordan toward Gaza on the Mediterranean coast. This road came down from Petra, to the area of Ein El Amar and continued on through Nachal El Amar (Nachal Omer), then climbed from the Arava to Moit Awad and from there toward the Ramon Crater – Avdat – Gaza.

In the area, one can find remains of an Islamic village that was built from oval structures (elliptical) from local stone and bricks.

מצודת קצרה


This is an observation tower and a small road station (a square structure built from hewn stone) on a slope of the Incense Route. This building can be reached by 4X4 vehicle only.

מצד נקרות

Metzad Nekarot

This is a way station in Nachal Nekarot, consisting of a square tower preserved from the Roman period, standing three meters high. The stronghold looks out over the ancient road within Nachal Nekarot and serves as a guard station for an ancient cistern, made of stone and filled by floodwaters.

The next fortress, in the Ramon Crater, is named Khan Saharonim. You can continue north on the ancient road to Maaleh Machmal and Maaleh Noach, and from there continue on the Incense Route to Avdat and the city of Shivta, from there to Ruchiba and down Nachal Besor to the ancient port in Gaza.

Nachal Omer

Here there is a small town from the early Arab period (7th-8th centuries AD) located on the eastern bank of Nachal Omer.

The site was excavated in 1981 and in 1991 and despite its small size of less than an acre,  the material findings discovered in the excavations were amazing, by any standards. Besides discovering pieces of ceramics, they found pieces of textile, baskets and cloth materials. The excellent preservation is explained by the dry desert climate that preserved the organic findings, revealed during excavations.

They found some 180 pieces of textile in the excavations including cotton, linen, goats wool and silk. The source of most of the textile pieces was most likely from clothing. Goat hair was probably used to make sacks. Based on tests they performed, they found that these weaves of cloth came from a wide geographical range. Egypt (cotton), Syria (cotton and silk), Yemen (cotton), India (cotton) and China (silk). Some were dyed in red and blue. The cottons were cut and dyed using the Ikat method (in this method they dye the wool thread, before weaving, into the desired pattern). This method proves that the source of materials was either India or Yemen. These materials are dated 650-810 AD and in the researchers’ opinion, this is probably the first appearance of the well-known Ikat method, discovered in archaeological digs. They also found four pieces of silk which most likely came from the Far East (China). And they also found material embroidered with gold!

This textile find from Nachal Omer is very prominent and unique in its wide range of materials, techniques and colors. Most of the textile was imported and this fits with  the international character of the site, as a station on the Incense Route. The site is on a junction heading in the direction of Egypt, Arabia, India, Mesopotamia (Iraq), East Asia and China.

The materials, the techniques and the ornamenting in the find from Nachal Omer are proof of trade with these countries. In addition, this find is evidence of a rich and established settlement, differing from other villages from the same period in the Arava, where archaeological findings are poorer, simpler and proof of a population with lower socioeconomic status. It seems as though the relative richness of the site should be ascribed to its geographical proximity to the important site name 'Moit Awad' and identified with Moa from the Byzantine Period.

The unique finds from the Nachal Omer site are proof of the international character of the Incense Route.

This route was part of a huge system of roads connecting the Negev with Asia (China and India), Yemen and Syria.

On this road system a large variety of goods were transported to every region, including luxury goods such as perfumes (frankincense and myrrh). It is interesting to note that the researchers believe that the final usage of cut up pieces of fabric was for toilet paper ….

אנדרטה ליד פארן (ממנה יצאו ההולכים לפטרה)

The Monument Near Faran (where travelers set out for Petra)

“We grazed the stone path – memorial to the five”

The Lower Monument

From: 'Up to the Rock' – Five travelers who perished across the border on their way to the Red Rock, on the 16th day of Elul 5713 - August 15th 1953. Kibbutz Meuchad Publications, 1966.

Arieh Magar (Arik), 25, from Moshav Ein Eiron, Miriam Mundrar (23) from Haifa, Eitan Mintz from Moshav Maas near Petach Tikva, Yaakov Kleifeld (Klik) from Kibbutz Yiftach, Gila Ben Akiva (Drucker) (28) from Kfar Yehoshua.

“The starting point was in Sde Boker.

In planning the entire hike we would establish several main 'places of interest'. Places that stood out in their beauty, or some other unique characteristic that we referred to as 'attractions'. Wadi Moreh is Nachal Zin, Ein Zik (Shahabia) Ein Erchot (Ein Katar) and Hor Hahar. Most of the walking was along Darb el Sultan – the King’s Road and walking along such an ancient path that used to connect Gaza and the sea to the Arava and the land of Edom – was in itself an experience.

The plan for Hor Hahar was added, mostly as compensation for Arik, instead of Jabel Haron on Har Sair , near Petra. In fact, Miriam and Arik planned at the end of the hike to continue to Petra, while the other members chose to omit some of the sites.

We set out for Har Marzeva, a high peak before the descent to the Arava. From there we hoped to view the landscape below and look at the entire Arava. The name Marzeva probably came from the word marzev, because it is the point where the water drains to the Arava. Many small wadis spill into the Marzeva, but it is especially worth noting the meeting point of the two big rivers, Marzeva and Nikra (Hasik). In this same place there is a high cliff overlooking the whole area and from there, on to Ein Yahav, a settlement in the Arava.

On the way, we passed Rachel Spring (Ein Haruf). Typical salty soil, black and swampy mud. Prickly Juncus plants covered the entire area. People from Ein Yahav developed and worked the spring, which at first looked like a swamp covered in water plants. Now the waters run and flow into the pipes leading to the farm. The water, sulphur water, is like all the water from the small springs in that area, but there is nothing quite like this great environment. We had an interesting visit in the experimental agricultural fields in Ein Yahav and continued on toward Yotvata.”

האנדרטה העליונה

The Upper Monument


Esty Sela adds, "In a conversation I had (6.8.07) with Ms. Rachel Savurai from Kibbutz Revivim, a friend of the five and who visited Petra together with Meir Har Tzion in 1953, the following issues were raised".

The five arrived at the camp of the Israel National Road Company, in Be’er Menucha. They asked the proprietor for maps and weapons and he refused to give them either. The monument was erected, by friends and siblings, on the mountaintop, half a year after they were killed. They were killed in the Jordanian police 'enclosure', Bir Medkor, located on the way to Petra. They came to this place to ask for help, as a snake had bitten one of the hikers.

Upon entry they were commanded to come closer and it was there the five were shot (Savurai – Ha’aretz 2001)

The lower monument, was established by friends and family relatives, at the bottom of the mountain, 40 years later, in 1993.

Remains of an Airstrip, near Faran:

Gidon Ragulski told us the entire story of the airstrip in detail. You can read about it in the magazine “Kol HaArava” no. 19. (Hebrew only)

Written and recorded by Esty Sela/Dept. of Tourism/June 2007

Sources: Ein Yahav archives, Israel Antiquities Authority, branch for site preservation/ Oren Shmueli, Gidon Ragulski, Chanoch Weizer

Photography: Esty Sela, Gilad Livni, Gila Tal, Yoram Chemo, Oren Shmueli, Miki Gal, Moshe Rosenberg, Dan Bahir (z”l), Danny Hadas (The Monument of those who went to Petra).

For further details: Lev HaArava – Dept. of Tourism

Additional reading: 'On the Springs Path' – Megalim – tourism magazine